Links & Literature

Hofstede Insights is the global expert on national and organisational culture. Itim provides training and consultancy in the field of culture and management. Over the years the organisation has expanded and has now around 100 certified consultants in more than 40 countries around the world.

For more information, please go to

Professor Hofstede has a Masters degree in Mechanical Engineering and a doctorate in Social Psychology. In 1965 he joined IBM as a trainer in the international Executive Development Department. Towards the end of the sixties and the beginning of the seventies he started with a research within IBM’s offices all over the world on employee attitude surveys. The results of these surveys and more research throughout the seventies were published in 1980 in Hofstede’s Culture's Consequences. Nowadays Professor Hofstede is retired, but still an active presenter at conferences and universities.

If you want to keep updated on his activities please visit his personal website at


To learn more about the 6-D Model, go to the website fully dedicated to the 6-D Model©


SWEDECHRIS and Christian Erfurth has worked closely together with Professor Hofstede and is a member of Hofstede Insights since 1985.

Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind, McGraw Hill, 2010, Geert & Gert Jan Hofstede, Michael Minkov.

Culture Smart! and Culture Shock! provides essential information on attitudes, beliefs and behaviours in about 80 different countries, ensuring that you arrive at your destination aware of basic manners, common courtesies, and sensitive issues.

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